what is Diabetes Mellitus?

Diabetes Mellitus

what is Diabetes Mellitus?

The term diabetes mellitus can also be termed as diabetes. It is one of the most common metabolic diseases which is responsible for a high level of sugar in the blood. It happens while the pancreas does no longer produces enough insulin. As insulin controls the level of blood glucose, an insufficient amount of insulin production results in diabetes. In some cases, insulin is appropriately produced, but due to its lack of productive use, it cannot move extra sugar from the blood. If the high blood sugar from diabetes is untreated for a long time, it can damage nerves, kidneys, eyes, or other organs.

Types of Diabetes:

Diabetes can be of different types.

Type 1 diabetes :

Type 1 Diabetes is known as insulin-dependent diabetes. As it often begins in the early years, it was once called juvenile-onset diabetes. The production of insulin is wholly stopped in type 1 diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes:

Type 2 diabetes is also referred to as non-insulin established diabetes. The pancreas creates some insulin in such a metabolic condition. But the amount is not sufficient. Type 2 diabetes is considered slightly milder than type 1 diabetes. People with obesity have a higher risk of having type 2 diabetes.

Gestational diabetes:

Gestational diabetes is associated with pregnancy. Sometimes pregnancy causes insulin resistance. And when it leads to diabetes, it is called gestational. Gestational diabetes reported in 2%-10% of pregnancies. Usually, it goes away after giving birth.

Prediabetes :

Prediabetes occurs when the sugar in the blood is higher than average. But it is not high enough to be type 2 diabetes. Changes in lifestyle could prevent prediabetes from developing into type 2 diabetes.


The symptoms of diabetes can broaden at any age. But most of the time, it appears during childhood and adolescence. But type 2 diabetes is more common in people who are above 40 years old. The most common symptoms of diabetes are listed below:

  • Increased thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Unusual hunger
  • Sudden weight loss
  • Blurred vision
  • Frequent infection

If someone is noticing any of the following symptoms, he/she must consult with a doctor. If the condition is early diagnosed, the treatment can begin soon as well.

Risk Factors:

The presence of some critical factors might accelerate the process of having diabetes. They are given below:

  1. Family history
  2. Age
  3. High blood pressure
  4. Polycystic ovary syndrome
  5. Excessive weight or fatty tissues

Complications :

The complications of diabetes develop gradually. They might affect the patient severely. Possible complications include:

  1. Cardiovascular disease.
  2. Nerve damage (neuropathy)
  3. Eye damage
  4. Kidney damage
  5. Alzheimer’s disease


There is no way type 1 diabetes can be prevented. But following some healthy lifestyle might avoid getting prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes.

  1. Eating healthy food highly recommended. Daily diet must contain low fat and calories but high fiber alongside fruits, fresh vegetables.
  2. Excess weight must be reduced. Pressure must be in a range that is considered healthy.
  3. Getting physical activity regularly must be ensured with 30 minutes of moderate physical activity.

Sometimes doctors might suggest medication that might reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. But a healthy lifestyle choice is essential.

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