lev tolstoy biography

Lev tolstoy biography

Lev tolstoy biography [ 1828-1910 ]

This great Russian thinker, one of the world’s greatest writers, humanist Tolstoy was born on August 28 (September 9) in 1828 in a noble family in Russia. Tolstoy’s parents were pure aristocrats from both sides. Tolstoy’s father Nicholas was the owner of a large estate. Leo Tolstoy was the fourth son of his parents. His mother died a year after his birth. The burden of looking after him was on a mother-in-law. He began his education at home at the age of five, taught by a German teacher. When he was eight years old, he and his brothers had to leave the Polian countryside for Moscow.

He did not have to stay in Moscow for long. A year later Nicholas died suddenly. Their guardian is Fufu. The two older brothers remained in Moscow, Tolstoy returned to his uncle in Polyana. Home teacher is fixed. He started learning German and Russian. After three years, the uncle died, now the guardian of the minors was another uncle, who lived in Kazan. Fufu took Tolstoy to Kazan.

Seeing him spend his days in idle pleasure, his brother decided to admit Tolstoy to Kazan University. He could not pass the university entrance exam the first time. He got admitted to the university in the second attempt. Tolstoy never paid attention to studies. After entering the university, Tolstoy was freed from all the previous restrictions. During most of the day and night, the conversation was spent in fun and leisure. As a result, he failed the exam. Tolstoy turned 18 years old. Brother passed out from university and joined the army as an officer. As a minor, Tolstoy got ownership of his ancestral property.

He became the owner of a large estate of Yasna Polyana, as well as about 350 serfs. As a result of Khazan’s disorderly lifestyle, he fell ill. He was admitted to the hospital. After returning from the hospital, he came straight to his estate. Tolstoy was inspired by Russian ideals, he decided to improve the serfs in his estate. They began to look at Tolstoy’s work with suspicion.

They felt that there must be some evil intention behind it. Tolstoy became angry with their behavior. He decided to start teaching among the farmers without wasting time. He enrolled at the University of Petersburg to study law. After a while, the life there became tiresome to him. He came back to his estate. It was not good there either. Went to Moscow. Older brother Nicholas came home for the Christmas holidays. Seeing the behavior of his younger brother, he decided to enroll him in the army. Tolstoy agreed to his brother’s proposal. He left for the Caucasus with his brother, leaving the burden of seeing and hearing all the zamindari on his sister-in-law.

Biography of Lev Tolstoy

Tolstoy joined the army. Based on the experience of this period, he later wrote two famous stories “Captive in the Caucasus” and “Cossack” For the first few days he was in the frenzy of war, but gradually he started to develop a hatred against war in his mind.

Tolstoy’s older brother Nicholas died of tuberculosis. Tolstoy loved this brother very much. Tolstoy was devastated by his death. He returned to his zamindari Yasna Polyana to forget his depression. In 1855, Tsar Nicholas I of Russia died. Alexander II ascended the throne after him. Alexander II introduced some reform policies. Tolstoy welcomed it. All the other landlords became angry with him and even plotted to kill him. He became ill due to the mental turmoil caused by all these incidents, the doctor suggested a change of weather.

Lev tolstoy biography

Tolstoy came to the Caucasus. Dr. Behrm was here. He met his daughter Sophia. Both of them liked each other. Tolstoy married Sophia in 1962, when he was 34, Sophia was 18. Tolstoy returned to the estate with his wife. His literary pursuits started anew. Among the works he had already completed, ‘Cosca’ was published in 1863. Immediately gained incredible popularity.

With the publication of this novel, Tolstoy gained fame as a popular writer in Russia. Encouraged by this popularity, he started his ‘War and Peace’ novel ( War and peace ), the greatest of all time. It took him five long years to compose it. In 1865, the first volume of this novel was published in the Russian Dut newspaper. Its last volume was printed in 1869.

This novel can be compared to an epic poem. The whole of human life has evolved here in all its varied scope. Along with the analysis of human life, its minute details. ‘War and Peace’ is the story of the Russian social system between 1805 and 1813, as well as the fracturing of three families in the wake of Napoleon Bonaparte’s invasion of Russia. He has already fathered six children. Besides, there were some other small children in the house. While interacting with them, he became attracted towards child education. He opened several schools for village children.

Lev tolstoy biography

At this time one day Tolstoy learned that a girl had committed suicide on the railway line. This incident deeply moved his mind. He wrote his world famous novel Anna Karenina based on this incident. It took him several years to write this novel. In 1877 it was published in the Russian Dut newspaper. But in this fame Tolstoy’s life came down with hurt and pain. Several of his children died one after another. His uncle died.

Lev tolstoy biography

To forget one death after another, Tolstoy took refuge in the world of religion. Fame, money, name, everything seems baseless to him. Tolstoy was deeply attracted to religious activities. He used to go to church regularly.  used to discuss religion with the priests. He read the Bible regularly. He tried to understand the life of Jesus.  gradually became enraged by the sin and lawlessness of the people of the Christian world. He published several works directly practicing and criticizing the people of the Christian religion. The people of all religions became angry with him. Tolstoy came to Moscow with his family at the request of his wife.

From then on, a thought started to take root in his mind, if accumulating wealth is a sin, then he is guilty of that sin. He decided to distribute all his wealth among the common farmers. But Bandha could not accept this high ideal from Sofia thinking about her children.

Lev tolstoy biography

Disputes started, later in life these disputes became more and more intense. Marital disputes gradually escalated. Tolstoy bequeathed all his possessions, books to his wife and returned to the village. He decided to live with the ideals that he had talked about so far. At this time Tolstoy stopped eating fish and meat. He did not touch alcohol, even quit smoking.

Tolstoy started the work of creation again. At this stage he wrote some of his famous short stories. What do people live for, two old men where there is love, there is God, the story of Ivan the Fool, the three monks, how much land does man need, the godfather – these stories contain moral lessons on the one hand and guidance on the path of honest and simple life on the other. An extraordinary beauty has emerged in every story. It touches the heart of the reader. Later these stories were compiled and published as 23 stories (1906).

Lev tolstoy biography

In 1889, his most controversial novel, Cryozer’s Sonnet, was published. At that time Tolstoy was 61 years old. In it, he wrote that an old man killed his bigamous wife in great emotional pain. With the publication of this work, a storm of controversy swept around. Condemnation was filled with sarcasm and sarcasm. Criticism was all around. A perverse sexuality emerged in it. The author has embarked on the task of destroying all societies. This book has been banned. But thousands of copies have already spread all over the country.

Famine occurred in Soviet Russia. Thousands of people began to spend their days in the misery of starvation. The government of the country remained completely indifferent to this incident. But Tolstoy was deeply disturbed. In an interview in London’s Daily Telegraph newspaper, he criticized the country’s government’s bureaucratic system and said that the current administration is responsible for the country’s famine. As a result of his criticism, the real picture of Russia was revealed to the world. 

The members of the Tsar’s cabinet burst into anger. Everyone understood that Tolstoy would be imprisoned this time for the crime of treason. But the tsar did not allow the arrest to settle the dispute of famine, but Tolstoy’s life suffered a great blow. His beloved son died. Tolstoy was temporarily broken by this death. Some of his other works have already been published. Even at the last stage of his life, his creativity did not decrease so much. At this time he started writing his big story “Haji Murad” (Haji Murad) . This story was published after his death. This is one of his best works. Along with the writing of Haji Murad, he wrote his world-famous novel ”   Tesurrection ” .

Biography of Lev Tolstoy

Tsar Alexander III of Russia died. The new is his son Nicholas II. Alexander III was relatively liberal. But his son was as cruel as tyrant. Arrests and torture started all over the country. Despite not doing anything against Tolstoy, his followers were sent to prison. Torture started on them. Religious institutions loyal to the government said that no priest should participate in his funeral.

Meanwhile, the revolutionary movement started across the country under the leadership of Leylin. In 1908, his passionate essay “I Cannot Be Silent” was published. In it, he strongly condemned the persecution of the revolutionaries and this work was immediately banned. Tolstoy stepped in eighty years. He became the embodiment of humanity and Russian culture to the people of all countries. Even though the whole world respects him, there is great turmoil in the world.

Biography of Lev Tolstoy

Tolstoy bequeathed the copyright in all his works to all mankind. His wife Sophia could not accept it. His greed for money was increasing gradually. At one time, the dispute became intense. Tolstoy gradually fell ill. During this time he was cared for by his younger daughter Alexander. But the torture of his wife reached such a state that he could no longer stay at home. He went out for an unknown purpose. On the way, he got down at a station called Astapage. Then he had high fever along with coughing up blood. He breathed his last in a house adjacent to the station on November 7, 1910.


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